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Choline, an essential nutrient for human health, plays a lipotropic role in lipid (fat) metabolism (Liz, Agellon and Vance, 2005; Corbin and Zeisel, 2012). Individuals deficient in choline are at risk of developing non-alcholic fatty liver disease along with a myriad of other metabolic disorders (Zeisel, 2011). Choline supplementation has been shown not only to improve hepatic lipid metabolism (Zhu, 2014), but significantly reduce athletes body mass over one week (Elsawy, Abdelrahman and Hamza, 2014).
Myo Inositol is a carbocylic sugar which is found in the brain and various other tissues. A review by Croze and Soulage (2013) highlights Myo Inositol’s insulin-sensitizing effect and ability to reduce insulin resistance. Furthermore, myo inositol supplementation in combination with a 6 month diet has been shown to significantly accelerate weight loss in obese women (Donne et al., 2019).
Methionine, an essential amino acid, stimulates the secretion of somatotropin (growth hormone) which plays a key role in lipid metabolism (Gertner, 1992). Additionally, due to its lipotropic role, the sulphur present in methionine prevents excess hepatic fat accumulation (Mato, Martínez-Chantar and Lu, 2008).
Paradoxine (Grains of Paradise/aframomum melegueta) is a herb in the same family as ginger which shares many similar bioactives. The herb has been shown to increase whole body energy expenditure and activate stubborn brown fat (Sugita et al., 2013). Paradoxine, a trademarked form of rains of paradise, contains a powerful antioxidant 6-paradol which helps reduce adipose tissue accumulation.
Garcinia Cambogia is a fruit native to India and Southeast Asia. Its high amount of Hydrocycitric Acid (HCA) have been shown to significantly increase fat loss in humans by supressing appetite, inhibiting adenosine triphosphate-citrate-lyase and reducing carbohydrate metabolism (Onakpoya et al., 2011).
Coleus forskohlii is a traditional Ayurvdic herb which has been used for many centuries. Its main bioactive ingredient forskohlii, increases cellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) (Sapio et al., 2016). Increased levels of cAMP are associated with accelerated fat loss and acts in synergy with other fat burning compounds to increase their effectiveness.
Corbin, K.D. and Zeisel, S.H. (2012) Choline metabolism provides novel insights into nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 28, pp.159–165.
Croze, M.L. and Soulage, C.O. (2013). Potential Role and Therapeutic Interests of myo-inositol in Metabolic Diseases. Biochimie, 95(10), pp.1811–1827.
Donne, M.L.E., Metro, D., Alibrandi, A., Papa, M. and Benvenga, S. (2019) Effects of three treatment modalities (diet, myoinositol or myoinositol associated with D-chiro-inositol) on clinical and body composition outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 23, pp.2293-2301.
Elsawy, G., Abdelrahman, O. and Hamza, A. (2014). Effect of Choline Supplementation on Rapid Weight Loss and Biochemical Variables among Female Taekwondo and Judo Athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics, 40(1), pp.77–82.
Gertner, J.M. (1992) Growth Hormone Actions on Fat Distribution and Metabolism. Hormone Research, 38(2), pp.41–43.
Li, Z., Agellon, L.B. and Vance, D.E. (2005) Phosphatidylcholine homeostasis and liver failure. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 37798–37802.
Mato, J.M., Martínez-Chantar, M.L. and Lu, S.C. (2008) Methionine Metabolism and Liver Disease. Annual Review of Nutrition, 28(1), pp.273–293.
Onakpoya, I., Hung, S.K., Perry, R., Wider, B. and Ernst, E. (2011) ‘The Use of Garcinia Extract (Hydroxycitric Acid) as a Weight Loss Supplement: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials’. Journal of Obesity, 2011, pp.1–9.
Sapio, L., Gallo, M., Illiano, M., Chiosi, E., Naviglio, D., Spina, A. and Naviglio, S. (2016) ‘The Natural cAMP Elevating Compound Forskolin in Cancer Therapy: Is It Time?’ Journal of Cellular Physiology, 232(5), pp.922–927.
Sugita, J., Yoneshiro, T., Hatano, T., Aita, S., Ikemoto, T., Uchiwa, H., Iwanaga, T., Kameya, T., Kawai, Y. and Saito, M. (2013) ‘Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta) Extract Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Increases whole-body Energy Expenditure in Men’. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(4), pp.733–738.
Zeisel, S.H. (2011) Nutritional genomics: Defining the dietary requirement and effects of choline. J. Nutr. 2011, 141, 531–534.
Zhu, J., Wu, Y., Tang, Q., Leng, Y. and Cai, W. (2014) The effects of choline on hepatic lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function and antioxidative status in human hepatic C3A cells exposed to excessive energy substrates. Nutrients, 6(7), pp.2552–71.