Viridian High Potency Magnesium with B6
What does Magnesium do?
Magnesium is referred to as the ‘spark of life’ because it is important for so many processes and influences so many aspects of health. Magnesium is a cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions in the body and is therefore vital for a number of cellular processes including oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, DNA transcription and protein synthesis.
Magnesium deficiency has been associated with a number of diseases including migraine headaches, Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, anxiety, depression and chronic fatigue.
Where previously magnesium deficiency was rare due to adequate intakes of green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds and grains, current over-processing of food means that magnesium intakes have significantly decreased in recent years. Another factor which is leading to reduced magnesium intake is poor soil quality with reduced mineral levels due to widespread use of artificial fertlisers. In vegetables, this has resulted in a reduced mineral content including magnesium. Recent dietary surveys have shown that the average magnesium intake in western countries is frequently below the recommended daily allowance (RDA).
In the UK, the average daily magnesium intake for men and women is estimated to be 308mg and 229mg respectively. Therefore 100% of people in the UK are not meeting the current RDA of 375 mg. Furthermore, the RDA may even be too low. While it is not exactly clear what dietary intake of magnesium is optimal, it is apparent that modern diets do not supply a sufficient amount to prevent deficiency related diseases.
It has been estimated that pre agricultural and industrial intakes of magnesium were approximately 600 mg per day and it is likely that this represents the optimal intake of magnesium that our metabolism is best adapted to. Supplementation studies have also shown that at least 300 mg per day is required to significantly increase blood levels. Therefore most people would need to increase their daily magnesium intake by at least 300 mg in addition to their usual diet. This dose may serve as a reference point for magnesium supplement use.
In addition to poor dietary intake there are several other known risk factors for magnesium deficiency: For some time, magnesium oxide has been considered to be poorly absorbed but new research suggests that it is actually well absorbed and as effective as magnesium citrate. In a double-blind study, researchers compared supplemental magnesium citrate to magnesium oxide on intracellular magnesium levels over a period of one month. Using new analytical techniques (x-ray dispersion analysis) the results showed magnesium oxide produced a comparable intracellular magnesium level to magnesium citrate. Both were well tolerated.
So, as the current evidence stands there is not sufficient evidence to suggest one form of magnesium is superior to another in terms of bioavailability, in fact clinical intervention studies have generally found a variety of forms (in particular carbonate, chloride, citrate, orotate and oxide) to be clinically effective for a wide range of illness.So perhaps any differences in absorption between forms are not that meaningful in terms of clinical benefits.
Elevated cortisol levels
STRESS - A human study of magnesium supplementation has shown that magnesium is able to regulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis, the major component of the stress system. Experimental evidence has also suggested that low dietary magnesium may lead to HPA axis hyperactivity and subsequent anxiety disorders. Magnesium also influences glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission thus may reduce brain excitatory activity and have a calming effect on the central nervous system.
DEPRESSION- In a series of case studies magnesium treatment aided recovery from treatment resistant depression. Depressive symptoms that improved after magnesium supplementation included headache, anxiety, irritability, insomnia and short-term memory loss.
A study reviewing the effects of magnesium supplementation of 450 mg daily for 12 weeks against an anti-depressant drug (Ipramine) in Type 2 diabetics which is a high risk group for magnesium deficiency, found that magnesium was highly effective in treating depression and as effective as the anti-depressant medication.
Magnesium Significantly Improves Depression
ENERGY - The production and utilisation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), is influenced by magnesium status. Magnesium deficiency can disrupt mitochondrial function and it has been hypothesised that magnesium treatment could play an important role in relieving fatigue. A study investigating the role for magnesium in the treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) found that compared to healthy controls, people with CFS had low red blood cell magnesium and that intravenous magnesium treatment improved energy levels, emotional state, and reduced pain.
Oral magnesium has shown promise in Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS). Malic acid in combination with magnesium showed significant reductions in the severity of pain and tenderness in people with FMS after two months of treatment. A study assessed a higher dose of magnesium (300–600 mg) and malic acid (1200–2400 mg) over 8 weeks. This study reported significant improvements in tender points between the intervention and control condition as well as a significant worsening of these scores when subjects were crossed-over to placebo group. All patients reported significant subjective improvement of pain within 48 hours of starting the magnesium and malic acid.
Magnesium and Malic Acid Reduce Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
FEMALE HEALTH - Magnesium supplementation has been shown to be beneficial in a number of aspects in female health including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), menstrual migraine headaches, painful periods (dysmenorrhea) and hot flushes as well as improved pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Women with PMS have been shown to have low red blood cell magnesium content compared to women who do not have PMS. An early study of magnesium found reduced PMS related mood changes compared to placebo. Another study found that a daily supplement of 200 mg of magnesium was also superior to placebo for the reduction of mild PMS symptoms of fluid retention.
There is evidence to suggest that magnesium is more effective for PMS related mood symptoms when combined with vitamin B6. A study contrasting the effects of (1) 200mg magnesium, (2) 50 mg vitamin B6, (3) 200 mg magnesium + 50 mg vitamin B6 or (4) placebo found a synergistic effect of a daily dietary supplementation with a combination of magnesium + vitamin B6 in the reduction of mild premenstrual anxiety related symptoms.37 This synergism was again confirmed in a follow up study using 250 mg magnesium plus 40 mg vitamin B6.
Magnesium has been shown to reduce hot flushes. A pilot study using magnesium supplementation found that women with breast cancer were able to reduce hot flushes, which are a common side effect of treatment. Four weeks of supplementing with magnesium (400 mg daily) resolved hot flushes in 45% of women and resulted in a more than 50% reduction in another 45%.39 In a phase II study 400 mg of magnesium for 4 weeks, was able to significantly relieve hot flushes, fatigue, sweating, and distress.
Magnesium supplementation during pregnancy may be able to improve pregnancy outcomes, especially in women with low dietary intakes. A review of clinical studies of magnesium supplements in pregnancy concluded that magnesium taken before the 25th week of gestation was linked with a lower frequency of preterm birth, a lower frequency of low birth weight and fewer small-for- gestational-age infants. The review also found that fewer hospitalizations during pregnancy and fewer cases of antepartum hemorrhage were associated with magnesium use.
Magnesium supplementation may also be a useful treatment for pregnancy-related leg cramps.
SPORTS PERFORMANCE - Strenuous exercise increases magnesium loss through urine and sweat so that magnesium demands can be 10-20% higher in athletes than the general population. Dietary intakes of magnesium are often low in athletes and with as many as half consuming diets less than the recommended intake of magnesium for sedentary adults. Magnesium deficiency can impair physical performance and exercise capacity.
A study in untrained women using 150 mg versus 320 mg per day found that the higher magnesium intake resulted in significant improvements in heart rate and oxygen consumption.45 In a study, adults receiving a supplement of 250 mg magnesium per day demonstrated improvements in cardio- respiratory function.
Other reports have also found that muscle cramps and spasms in individuals undergoing heavy exercise were resolved with magnesium supplementation. Magnesium may also be useful for improving exercise performance in those with heart disease. A six-month clinical trial of magnesium supplementation in patients with coronary artery disease resulted in a significant improvement in exercise duration time and exercise induced chest pain.
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH – In a four week study on patients with uncontrolled hypertension, oral magnesium supplementation reduced blood pressure. The outcome suggested that blood pressure was reduced through the activation of cell membrane sodium pump and may reduce serum lipid concentration. Magnesium supplementation also acts as a calcium channel blocker, increases nitric oxide and induces vasodilation, which are all beneficial for cardiovascular health.
In people with coronary heart disease supplementing with magnesium significantly improved brachial artery endothelial function and inhibited thrombosis. Higher magnesium intakes may reduce the risk of stroke. In a large meta-analysis trial, 100mg of extra magnesium daily reduced the risk of stroke by 8%.
BLOOD SUGAR - There is very strong evidence to show that low dietary magnesium intake is associated with risk of Type-2 diabetes, in a dose-response manner. Furthermore a meta-analysis of nine clinical studies of magnesium supplementation in Type-2 diabetes found consistent benefits for reducing plasma fasting glucose levels and raising HDL cholesterol at a median dose of 360 mg per day for 4-16 weeks.
BONE HEALTH – Magnesium is required for bone formation through osteoclast and osteoblast activity and deficiency negatively impacts bone health by inducing hypocalcaemia and increasing the brittleness of bone crystals. Women with osteoporosis were found to have low serum magnesium levels. One short-term study found that supplementing with 290mg/daily magnesium citrate reduced bone turnover therefore decreasing bone loss.
Magnesium citrate powder - Half a level teaspoon into water or juice once daily.
Children between 4 – 12 years a quarter of a teaspoon into water or juice once daily.
High Potency Magnesium capsules – One capsule once to twice daily. Children between 8 - 12 years one capsule daily.
Magnesium citrate with Vitamin B6 - One capsule one to three times daily. Magnesium citrate with Potassium - One capsule one to three times daily.
Potential applications: Stress, anxiety, depression, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, cardiovascular health, osteoporosis, PMS, menopausal symptoms, sports fitness, hypertension and diabetes.
Magnesium supplementation is contraindicated in those with renal failure. Lose bowel movements may occur in levels of elemental magnesium consumed over 400mg in one dose.
Beneficial interactions may be seen with people taking anti-arrhythmic drugs and calcium-channel blockers. This will need to be monitored by the healthcare professional.
Magnesium should be taken away from fluoroquinolone or tetracycline antibiotics as this impacts absorption.