Viridian High Potency Calcium & Vitamin D3
What is Calcium and Vitamin D supplement for?
Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, up to 99% of the body’s calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure and function. Calcium is also required for vascular contraction and vasodilation, muscle function, nerve transmission, intracellular signalling and hormonal secretion. A blend of three forms of calcium are used in this product to enable the encapsulation of a sufficient dose of calcium per capsule. The calcium hydroxide is uniquely derived from Lithothamnium calcareum, a marine sourced calcium.
Vitamin D is an essential nutrient that helps the body form and maintain healthy bones, muscle and teeth. The classic vitamin D deficiency disease is rickets. More recent research has shown that it helps regulate the immune system, lowering the risk of infection, mood issues, heart disease and autoimmune diseases. Yet as fear of sun-exposure has grown, and lifestyles have become more sedentary, exposure to the sun has dropped dramatically and vitamin D deficiency and the incidence of rickets has surged.
Vitamin D3 is the form of vitamin D that our bodies produce naturally, following a biotransformation of cholesterol following exposure to ultra violet rays from the sun. Vitamin D3 is also found in some animal products too, including those derived from sheep’s wool, however Viridian Nutrition’s Vitamin D3 is derived from lichen, a vegan source.
Health benefits of Calcium and Vitamin D
Calcium and Vitamin D for BONE HEALTH
Both calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients for bone health. The human skeleton is a ‘metabolically active organ’ which is constantly being re-modelled. The remodelling process involves osteoclast cells removing bone and osteoblasts laying down new bone.
Women experience greater loss of bone mass in older age than men, this is due to the sudden decrease in oestrogen levels post menopause which leads to progressive bone loss and increased bone resorption. In cases of severe bone loss with age, osteoporosis may be diagnosed. Osteoporosis is defined as a ‘progressive systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass with consequent increased bone fragility and susceptibility of fracture’.
Vitamin D plays a vital role in skeletal health as it increases calcium absorption from the small intestine which in turn leads to increased bone mineralisation. Vitamin D deficiency has therefore shown to negatively affect bone mineralisation. Sub-optimal vitamin D levels may also increase bone loss through stimulation of the para-thyroid hormone.
Calcium and vitamin D have been well researched in combination for bone health. A study supplementing men and women over the age of 65 years living in the community with 500mg of calcium and 700IU vitamin D found a significant improvement in all skeletal sites after one year of supplementation with a significant reduction in fracture incidence.
A clinical trial investigating the risks and benefits of calcium and Vitamin D supplementation on women discovered a reduction in the risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women with no apparent additional risk in relation to myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, stroke or total mortality. A three-year randomised population-based trial on women aged 65-71 years of age, concluded that supplementation with 800IU Vitamin D3 and 1000mg of calcium per day significantly improved total body bone density. Another three-year intervention study reviewing osteoporotic fractures in community dwelling elderly observed a 16% reduction in fracture incidence rate when supplemented with 1000mg calcium and 400IU Vitamin D3.
Several meta-analyses have also been conducted on calcium and Vitamin D supplementation for bone health. A meta-analysis conducted by the Osteoporosis Foundation including 30,970 participants found that supplementation with these two nutrients reduced the risk of total fractures by 15% and the risk of hip fractures by 30%. A meta-analysis looking into Vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium on a total of 9083 participants for the prevention of hip fractures established that oral Vitamin D only reduced the risk of hip fractures when given alongside calcium. This finding was supported by Chung et al who also suggested that there is a reduced risk of fractures when calcium is supplemented alongside Vitamin D. A meta-analysis by Tang et al investigating the use of calcium alone or in combination with Vitamin D for the prevention of bone loss and fractures confirmed that the most therapeutic effects were found when the nutrients were taken together at levels of 800IU Vitamin D and 1200mg calcium.
Calcium and Vitamin D for MUSCULOSKELETAL HEALTH
The combination of calcium and Vitamin D has been studied in relation to muscle health and function, for the prevention of falls in the elderly. In a double-blind randomised control trial, supplementation with 1200mg calcium and 800IU vitamin D daily to elderly women for 3 months was found to reduce the risk of falls by 49% compared to calcium alone
This was explained in part by the effects of Vitamin D on musculoskeletal health. A population-based intervention study reviewed a total of 9605 participants and investigated the effects of supplementation with 1000mg calcium and 400IU Vitamin D3 over three years. The results indicated a 12% reduction in the risk of serious falls compared to placebo. The reduction in falls may be attributed to the improvement in bone density, which in turn may improve stability of the subjects.
However, an alternative explanation might be that these supplements effect factors directly related to fall risk. Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggest a direct effect of vitamin D on muscle strength and function. This concept is supported by Pfeifer et al who concluded that calcium combined with Vitamin D was more effective at reducing falls and improving muscle function in community dwelling individuals than calcium alone. Significant improvements were also noted in Time Up and Go exercises, quadriceps strength and body sway.
Calcium and Vitamin D for CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH
Associations have been made between the intake of calcium and vitamin D and markers of cardiovascular health such as blood pressure and cholesterol profiles. Short-term supplementation of elderly women with calcium and vitamin D3 over 8 weeks found a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. A double blinded, randomised control trial investigated the effects of 1000mg calcium and 400IU vitamin D3 daily on cholesterol and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. The outcome showed that supplementation with these two nutrients significantly decreased low density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglycerides and increased High density lipoprotein.
Links have been made between calcium and Vitamin D homeostasis and the risk of type 2 diabetes development. Mechanistic data suggests that both calcium and vitamin D are necessary for the release of insulin from the pancreas. Additionally, Vitamin D is required for pancreatic beta-cell function . In a nurses health study, following 83,779 women over 20 years, results indicated that supplementation with 1200mg of calcium and 800IU Vitamin D was linked to a 33% reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes.
A systematic review and meta-analysis on observational studies and clinical trials found an association between low Vitamin D and calcium intake and/or status and type 2 diabetes with metabolic syndrome. This study concluded that Calcium and Vitamin D insufficiency negatively influenced glycemia and supplementation with both nutrients improved glucose metabolism.
Contraindications: Those with hyperparathyroidism should not supplement with vitamin D or calcium. Those with chronic renal impairment or kidney disease should not supplement with calcium.
Drug interactions: Calcium supplementation should be avoided in those taking calcium channel blockers and cardiac glycosides. Calcium supplementation should be taken at least four hours away from the drugs Alendronate, Atenolol, Etidronate, Levothyroxine and tetracycline antibiotics.
Safe to take during pregnancy or lactation.
A combination of Calcium and Vitamin D3 in a unique capsule format. One capsule provides 400mg of calcium in three active forms; as calcium hydroxide from Lithothamnion sp, as calcium citrate and as calcium ascorbate alongside 200IU vegan vitamin D3 from lichen.
Calcium and Vitamin D are needed for the maintenance of normal teeth and bones.
Calcium also contributes to normal neurotransmission and muscle function.