Viridian Synbio Saccharomyces Boulardii 30 Capsules
Synerbio Saccharomyces boulardii Veg Caps is an expert formulation comprising good gut bacteria (commonly known as probiotics) with added ‘prebiotics’.
The non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii was first discovered by French microbiologist, Henri Boulard in 1920 in the skin of Lychee fruit. Considered an ideal supplement to take alongside antibiotics and when travelling overseas. This remarkable yeast is one of the great success stories in probiotic therapy.
Synerbio Saccharomyces boulardii Veg Caps also includes five strains of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria, plus prebiotics. The unique Prebiotic FS2-60 offers full-spectrum prebiotic oligosaccharide and plant-derived inulin. FS2-60 is not digested but is utilised by the friendly flora to increase colonisation of Lactobacilli and the Bifidobacteria whilst reducing the foothold of unfriendly species.
The human gut is home to an immense population of bacteria. Some 100 trillion bacteria populate the human gut, a number that is 10 times greater than the number of cells in the human body. Because of the sheer size and importance of the gut bacteria, this microbial population can be viewed as a bacterial organ, about the size of your liver and just as important.
There are some 400 species of bacteria in the gut including Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, and Peptostreptococcus. Good gut bacteria species which are frequently found in food supplements include Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species.
It is critical to the maintenance of human health that a balance is preserved between these species.
Synbiotic Saccharomyces boulardiiTM
The non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii has been used for the past 30 years for the prevention and treatment of digestive illness, especially diarrhoea, antibiotic side effects, bacterial infection, parasitic infection, and prevention of traveller’s diarrhoea.
S. boulardii was first discovered by French microbiologist, Henri Boulard in 1920 in the skin of Lychee fruit when he noticed that the fruit skins were a traditional treatment for diarrhoea. Since then S. boulardii has proven very effective, with a recent analysis of 10 clinical studies showing that S. boulardii significantly reduced the risk of diarrhoea with antibiotic use, for example.1 S. boulardii is naturally resistant to antibiotics.
The anti-infectious properties of S. boulardii appear to be in part due to its ability to inhibit the growth of bad bacteria in the gut including Candida albicans, E. coli and parasites, while improving the balance of good bacteria and the health of the gastrointestinal system. This remarkable yeast is one of the great success stories in probiotic therapy.
What does Saccharomyces Boulardii do?
Resist digestive secretions.
Survive gastric transit.
Resist all antibacterial antibiotics.
Inhibit pathogen growth.
Directly antagonise Candida albicans and Clostridium difficile.
Increase beneficial Bifidobacteria.
Inactivate bacterial toxins.
Inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by enterotoxins.
Increase brush border membrane enzymes and nutrient transporters.
Treat and prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Manage acute diarrhea in children and adults. Prevent traveller’s diarrhoea.
Reduce recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.
Reduce relapses of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
Improve irritable bowel syndrome.2
ANTI BACTERIAL, ANTI-CANDIDA AND ANTI-PARASITIC- Probiotic bacteria have may have particular advantages against other therapies for the management of infections of mucosal surfaces such as the gastrointestinal tract and vagina. Probiotics are safe, fast acting, work as antimicrobials through several mechanisms (minimising the development of resistance) and stimulate the body’s own immune defences to destroy the invading pathogen.3 Saccharomyces boulardii is resistant to antibiotics and can also be given alongside treatment to improve outcomes and minimise side effects.
The antibacterial, antifungal and anti-parastic effects of S. boulardii have been well studied and experimental studies have found that S. boulardii works through several mechanisms to protect against and fight pathogenic organisms.5 Clostridium difficile, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter rodentium and Candida albicans are amongst the pathogenic bacteria that Saccharomyces boulardii has been found to be active against. Human clinical studies have found S. boulardii to be effective for the management of gastrointestinal bacterial infection in both children and adults.
Saccharomyces boulardii may protect against parasitic infection. In adult patients with giardiasis the addition of S. boulardii capsules (250mg twice daily) to metronidazole for 10 days resulted in complete eradication of G. lamblia cysts. Treatment with metronidazole alone did not result in complete eradication of G. lamblia with cysts still detected in 17.1% of patients.
In another study in children with gastrointestinal symptoms and positive stool examination for the parasite Blastocystis hominis, treatment with S. boulardii (250mg twice a day for 10 days resulted in a clinical cure rate (symptoms, presence of parasites) of 94.4%, which was superior to metronidazole (cure rate of 73.3%). There is evidence to suggest S. boulardii may protect against infection relapse. In a study of 124 patients with recurrent colitis or diarrhoea caused by C. difficile the addition of S. boulardii (1000mg per day for four weeks) to standard antibiotic therapy significantly reduced the occurrence of further relapses compared to placebo.
INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBS) - S. boulardii has demonstrated several anti-inflammatory activities in experimental studies. In addition human clinical reports suggest that S. boulardii may be useful for the management of inflammatory bowel disease.10 In patients with Crohn's disease suffering from diarrhoea, S. boulardii (250mg three times a day for 10 weeks) in addition to standard treatment, significantly reduced the frequency of bowel movements and improved overall symptoms scores.11 Saccharomyces boulardii may be a useful treatment for the maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease. In patients with Crohn's disease in clinical remission, the addition of S. boulardii (1000mg daily) to standard therapy (the drug mesalamine) resulted in fewer clinical relapses (6.25%) compared to mesalamine alone (37.5%).12
In a pilot study in patients with a mild to moderate clinical flare-up of ulcerative colitis treatment with S. boulardii (25 mg three times a day for four weeks) during maintenance treatment with mesalazine resulted in clinical remission in about two-thirds of patients. However, as there was no control it is hard to draw conclusions from this report.13 In a group of six ulcerative colitis patients who could not tolerate mesalazine, treatment with S. boulardii (500mg in the morning) plus Rifaximin (400mg in the evening) for three months resulted in persistent clinical remission.14 Collectively these reports suggest a beneficial effect of S. boulardii in inflammatory bowel disease although more studies are needed. It may be that improvements in intestinal permeability are in part responsible for the beneficial effect of S. boulardii observed in inflammatory bowel disease. In patients with Crohn's disease in remission S. boulardii (200mg every 8 hours for three months) resulted in improvements in intestinal permeability (as measured by lactulose/mannitol ratio) while those receiving placebo experienced an increase in permeability over the study period.15
DIARRHOEA PREDOMINANT IBS (IBS-D) - Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is characterised by symptoms such as abdominal pain, discomfort, constipation and/or diarrhoea, bloating, and flatulence. IBS is remarkably common with estimates that IBS may affect up to 20% of the general population.16 Research has provided increasing support for the idea that disturbances of intestinal microflora occur in patients with IBS and may contribute to disease development and clinical symptoms.17
For diarrhoea predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients S. boulardii may be effective. In a double- blind, placebo-controlled study conducted in 34 patients with predominant episodes of diarrhoea, treatment with S. boulardii was found to decrease the daily number of stools and improved their consistency after one month of treatment. However, S. boulardii did not improve other symptoms of IBS.18 In another study S. boulardii (750mg per day), or placebo was administered for six weeks in IBS-D patients, in addition to ispaghula husk. At 6-weeks S. boulardii with ispaghula husk was superior to placebo with ispaghula husk in improving the immune profile, histology, and quality of life of patients with IBS-D. 19 Some studies, however, have failed to show benefit but this may be due to an inadequate dose (< 500mg daily).20 21
TRAVELLER’S DIARRHOEA - is estimated to affect more than 60% of travellers to developing countries and in terms of frequency and economic impact is the number one health problem for international travel. Symptoms include vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever and diarrhoea; and while spontaneous cure usually occurs after four days, some patients may have symptoms for weeks, and some go on to develop irritable bowel syndrome.22
The efficacy of S. boulardii for preventing traveller’s diarrhoea has been demonstrated in a large cohort of travellers (1016 persons) to Northern Africa, the Middle East and the Far East. Treatment with S. boulardii was commenced five days before the travel and during the entire trip which lasted on average three weeks. Patients were assigned to placebo, S. boulardii at 250mg per day, or S. boulardii at 1000mg per day. S. boulardii was shown to significantly reduce the incidence of diarrhoea in a dose dependent manner.23
Image: S. boulardii reduces incidence of Traveller’s diarrhoea
ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED SIDE EFFECTS - Antibiotic use is the most common and significant cause of major decreases in healthy gut bacteria, and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria.24 Antibiotic use has been associated with the development of functional abdominal symptoms and IBS.25 Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea is a common side effect of antibiotic use affecting up to 30% of adults and 40% of children and may occur between the initiation of therapy and up to two months after cessation of treatment. Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea is thought to be the direct result of disturbance in the normal intestinal microflora, in particular infection with the pathogenic bacteria Clostridium difficile.26 Because S. boulardii is resistant to antibiotics it can be recommended to patients receiving antibiotics. Furthermore, S. boulardii has been shown to be effective against pathogenic bacteria associated with antibiotic side effects such as Clostridium difficile.27The effectiveness of S. boulardii for the prevention of antibiotic side-effects has been demonstrated in a number of human clinical trials and meta-analyses.28
In a study of 193 patients administration of S. boulardii (1000mg per day) from the beginning of antibiotic treatment and continued for three days after the course, S. boulardii significantly prevented the occurrence of diarrhoea (7% vs. 15% in the placebo group).29 In another study of 338 patients taking antibiotics S. boulardii (200mg per day) significantly reduced the incidence of diarrhoea (5% vs. 18% in the placebo group).30 The addition of S. boulardii (250mg per day) to antibiotic treatment in children with otitis media and ⁄ or respiratory tract infections also significantly reduced the incidence of diarrhoea (8% vs. 32% in the placebo group).31
Antibiotic treatment of Helicobacter pylori with antibiotics is commonly associated with side-effects. In patients with peptic ulcer disease or non-ulcer dyspepsia treated with antibiotics for H. pylori eradication, the addition of S. boulardii (500mg twice daily) significantly reduced the development of diarrhoea during or within 4 weeks after treatment (6.9% vs. 15.6% in the placebo group).32 Another study investigating S. boulardii (500 mg twice daily) in 124 patient receiving antibiotics for H. pylori infection found that S. boulardii significantly reduced the development of diarrhoea during (14.5% vs. 30.6% in the placebo group). In addition, S. boulardii improved epigastric discomfort and decreased post-treatment dyspepsia symptoms independent of H. pylori status.33
IMMUNITY - The ability of probiotics to treat and protect against recurrent gastrointestinal infection may be due to the enhancement of local immune defences. In children with acute gastroenteritis the administration of S. boulardii (250mg twice daily for seven days) resulted in significant increases in CD8 lymphocytes, serum immunoglobulin A and decreases in C-reactive protein levels, suggesting that S. boulardii treatment enhances the immune response. There was also a greater reduction in stool frequency in patients receiving S. boulardii.34
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS – To determine the suitability of S. boulardii for the management of urinary tract infection in children a study was undertaken to examine the effect of S. boulardii on faecal E. coli, a frequent cause of acute and recurrent urogenital infection. A total of 24 children (14 boys and 10 girls) with an average age of 8.6 years received S. boulardii (5 billion once a day) for five days. E. coli and yeast colonies in the stool samples decreased significantly after treatment suggesting S. boulardii may play a role in prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections, but further studies are needed.35
Prebiotic FS2-60TM is a full-spectrum prebiotic comprised of oligosaccharides and plant-derived inulin and works synergistically with probiotics.
Prebiotics are natural fibers that improve the balance of good gut bacteria and the effect of probiotics by providing substrate for their growth. A full-spectrum prebiotic provides a mixture of both short-chain (e.g. oligosaccharide) and longer-chain prebiotics (e.g. inulin). Short and longer chain prebiotics act at different sites in the large intestine (colon) so a full-spectrum blend will nourish bacteria throughout the colon. Full-spectrum prebiotics provide the full range of molecular link- lengths from 2 to 60 links per molecule and are amongst the best-studied types of prebiotics.36
A probiotic supplement that features well-studied strains of bacteria and also includes prebiotics is called a “Synbiotic.” Synbiotics may be superior to probiotics or prebiotics alone as they can improve the survival and establishment of probiotic supplements in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition a synbiotic can selectively stimulate the growth of several species of native good bacteria, thus improving gastrointestinal and overall health.37
Dosage - S. boulardii is typically taken at a dose of 250mg to 500mg once to twice daily. For acute diarrhoea, take 500mg twice daily.
For daily use, take 250mg once daily.
For travel, take 250mg daily five days before travel and continue for the duration of the trip.
For children from aged two years, take 250mg once daily, or as directed by a health care professional. For infants or children younger than two years, S. boulardii is best used under supervision of a healthcare professional.
Potential applications - Daily digestive health, Diarrhoea, Bacterial infection, Candida, Parasitic infection, Prevention of antibiotic associated side effects, diarrhoea predominant irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, prevention of traveller’s diarrhoea.
Known contraindications - Professional supervision is recommended in people taking immunosuppressant medications or who are immunocompromised e.g. infants, elderly or critical illness.
Probiotics are considered safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding